Monthly Archives: July 2012

Conservative vs. Liberal Beliefs

Copyright 2005 (revised 2010) StudentNewsDaily.com

We all want the same things in life. We want freedom; we want the chance for prosperity; we want as few people suffering as possible; we want healthy children; we want to have crime-free streets. The argument is how to achieve them…

LIBERALS – believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all.  It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties and individual and human rights.  Believe the role of the government should be to guarantee that no one is in need.Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve problems. CONSERVATIVES – believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense.  Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their own goals.Conservative policies generally emphasize empowerment of the individual to solve problems.

NOTE: The terms “left” and “right” define opposite ends of the political spectrum. In the United States, liberals are referred to as the left or left-wing and conservatives are referred to as the right or right-wing. On the U.S. political map, blue represents the Democratic Party (which generally upholds liberal principles) and red represents the Republican party (which generally upholds conservative principles).

THE ISSUES:

ISSUE LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE
Abortion A woman has the right to decide what happens with her body.  A fetus is not a human life, so it does not have separate individual rights.The government should provide taxpayer funded abortions for women who cannot afford them.The decision to have an abortion is a personal choice of a woman regarding her own body and the government must protect this right.  Women have the right to affordable, safe and legal abortions, including partial birth abortion. Human life begins at conception.  Abortion is the murder of a human being.  An unborn baby, as a living human being, has separate rights from those of the mother.Oppose taxpayer-funded abortion.  Taxpayer dollars should not be used for the government to provide abortions. Support legislation to prohibit partial birth abortions, called the “Partial Birth Abortion* Ban”(*Partial Birth Abortion:  the killing of an unborn baby of at least 20 weeks by pulling it out of the birth canal with forceps, but leaving the head inside.  An incision is made in the back of the baby’s neck and the brain tissue is suctioned out.  The head is then removed from the uterus.)
Affirmative Action Due to prevalent racism in the past, minorities were deprived of the same education and employment opportunities as whites.  The government must work to make up for that.America is still a racist society, therefore a federal affirmative action law is necessary.  Due to unequal opportunity, minorities still lag behind whites in all statistical measurements of success. Individuals should be admitted to schools and hired for jobs based on their ability.  It is unfair to use race as a factor in the selection process.  Reverse-discrimination is not a solution for racism.Some individuals in society are racist, but American society as a whole is not.  Preferential treatment of certain races through affirmative action is wrong.
Death Penalty The death penalty should be abolished.  It is inhumane and is ‘cruel and unusual’ punishment.  Imprisonment is the appropriate punishment for murder.  Every execution risks killing an innocent person. The death penalty is a punishment that fits the crime of murder; it is neither ‘cruel’ nor ‘unusual.’  Executing a murderer is the appropriate punishment for taking an innocent life.
Economy A market system in which government regulates the economy is best.  Government must protect citizens from the greed of big business.  Unlike the private sector, the government is motivated by public interest.  Government regulation in all areas of the economy is needed to level the playing field. The free market system, competitive capitalism, and private enterprise create the greatest opportunity and the highest standard of living for all.  Free markets produce more economic growth, more jobs and higher standards of living than those systems burdened by excessive government regulation.
Education –school vouchers
& charter schools
Public schools are the best way to educate students.  Vouchers take money away from public schools.  Government should focus additional funds on existing public schools, raising teacher salaries and reducing class size. School vouchers create competiton and therefore encourage schools to improve performance.Vouchers will give all parents the right to choose good schools for their children, not just those who can afford private schools.
Embryonic Stem Cell Research Support the use of embryonic stem cells for research. It is necessary (and ethical) for the government to fund embryonicstem cell research, which will assist scientists in finding treatments and cures for diseases.An embryo is not a human. The tiny blastocyst (embryos used in embryonic stem cell research) has no human features. Experimenting on embryos/embryonic stem cells is not murder.Embryonic stem cells have the potential to cure chronic and degenerative diseases which current medicine has been unable to effectively treat.Embryonic stem cells have been shown to be effective in treating heart damage in mice. Support the use of adult and umbilical cord stem cells onlyfor research. It is morally and ethically wrong for the government to fund embryonicstem cell research. Human life begins at conception. The extraction of stem cells from an embryo requires its destruction. In other words, it requires that a human life be killed.Adult stem cells have already been used to treat spinal cord injuries, Leukemia, and even Parkinson’s disease. Adult stem cells are derived from umbilical cords, placentas, amniotic fluid, various tissues and organ systems like skin and the liver, and even fat obtained from liposuction.Embryonic stem cells have not been successfully used to help cure disease.
Energy Oil is a depleting resource.  Other sources of energy must be explored.  The government must produce a national plan for all energy resources and subsidize (partially pay for) alternative energy research and production.Support increased exploration of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power.Support government control of gas and electric industries. Oil, gas and coal are all good sources of energy and are abundant in the U.S.  Oil drilling should be increased both on land and at sea.  Increased domestic production creates lower prices and less dependence on other countries for oil.Support increased production of nuclear energy.  Wind and solar sources will never provide plentiful, affordable sources of power.Support private ownership of gas and electric industries.
Euthanasia
&  Physician-assisted suicide
Euthanasia should be legalized. A person has a right to die with dignity, by his own choice. A terminally ill person should have the right to choose to end pain and suffering. It is wrong for the government to take away the means for a terminally ill person to hasten his death. It is wrong to force a person to go through so much pain and suffering. Legalizing euthanasia would not lead to doctor-assisted suicides of non-critical patients.Permitting euthanasia would reduce health care costs, which would then make funds available for those who could truly benefit from medical care. Neither euthanasia nor physician-assisted suicide should be legalized. It is immoral and unethical to deliberately end the life of a terminally ill person (euthanasia), or enable another person to end their own life (assisted suicide). The goal should be compassionate care and easing the suffering of terminally ill people.Legalizing euthanasia could lead to doctor-assisted suicides of non-critical patients.If euthanasia were legalized, insurance companies could pressure doctors to withhold life-saving treatment for dying patients.Many religions prohibit suicide and euthanasia.  These practices devalue human life.
Global Warming/
  Climate Change
Global warming is caused by an increased production of carbon dioxide through the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas).  The U.S. is a major contributor to global warming because it produces 25% of the world’s carbon dioxide. Proposed laws to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. are urgently needed and should be enacted immediately to save the planet.Many reputable scientists support this theory. Change in global temperature is natural over long periods of time.  Science has not shown that humans can affect permanent change to the earth’s temperature.Proposed laws to reduce carbon emissions will do nothing to help the environment and will cause significant price increases for all.Many reputable scientists support this theory.
Gun Control The Second Amendment does not give citizens the right to keep and bear arms, but only allows for the state to keep a militia (National Guard).  Individuals do not need guns for protection; it is the role of local and federal government to protect the people through law enforcement agencies and the military.Additional gun control laws are necessary to stop gun violence and limit the ability of criminals to obtain guns.More guns mean more violence. The Second Amendment gives citizens the right to keep and bear arms.  Individuals have the right to defend themselves.There are too many gun control laws–additional laws will not lower gun crime rates.  What is needed is enforcement of current laws. Gun control laws do not prevent criminals from obtaining guns.More guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens mean less crime.
Health Care Support free or low-cost government controlled health care.There are millions of Americans who can’t afford health care and are deprived of this basic right.  Every American has a right to affordable health care.  The governement should provide equal health care benefits for all, regardless of their ability to pay. Support competetive, free market health care system.All Americans have access to health care.  The debate is about who should pay for it.  Free and low-cost governement-run programs (socialized medicine) result in higher costs and everyone receiving the same poor-quality health care.  Health care should remain privatized.The problem of uninsured individuals should be addressed and solved within the free market healthcare system–the government should not control healthcare.
Homeland SecurityNOTE – there are many facets to Homeland Security.  This entry focuses on airport security. Airport security – Passenger profiling is wrong, period.  Selection of passengers for extra security screening should be random. Using other criteria (such as ethnicity) is discriminatory and offensive to Arabs and Muslims, who are generally innocent and law-abiding.Terrorists don’t fit a profile.
“…Arabs, Muslims and South Asians are no more likely than whites to be terrorists.”(American Civil Liberties Union ACLU)Asked on 60 Minutes if a 70-year-old white woman from Vero Beach should receive the same level of scrutiny as a Muslim from Jersey City, President Obama’s Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta said, “Basically, I would hope so.”
Airport security – Choosing passengers randomly for extra security searches is not effective.  Rather, profiling and intelligence data should be used to single out passengers for extra screening.  Those who do not meet the criteria for suspicion should not be subjected to intense screening.The terrorists currently posing a threat to the U.S. are primarily Islamic/Muslim men between the ages of 18 and 38.  Our resources should be focused on this group.  Profiling is good logical police work.  “If people are offended (by profiling), that’s unfortunate, but I don’t think we can afford to take the risk that terrorism brings to us. They’ve wasted masses of resources on far too many people doing things that really don’t have a big payoff in terms of security.” – Northwestern University Aviation Expert A. Gellman.
Immigration Support legal immigration.  Support blanket amnesty for those who enter the U.S. illegally (undocumented immigrants).  Also  believe that undocumented immigrants have a right to:
– all educational and health benefits that citizens receive (financial aid, welfare, social security and medicaid), regardless of legal status.
– the same rights as American citizensIt is unfair to arrest millions of undocumented immigrants.
Support legal immigration only.  Oppose amnesty for those who enter the U.S. illegally (illegal immigrants).  Those who break the law by entering the U.S. illegally do not have the same rights as those who obey the law and enter legally. The borders should be secured before addressing the problem of the illegal immigrants currently in the country.  The Federal Government should secure the borders and enforce current immigration law.
Private Property Government has the right to use eminent domain (seizure of private property by the government–with compensation to the owner) to accomplish a public end. Respect ownership and private property rights.  Eminent domain (seizure of private property by the government–with compensation to the owner) in most cases is wrong.  Eminent domain should not be used for private development.
Religion and Government Support the separation of church and state.  The Bill of Rights implies a separation of church and state.  Religious expression has no place in government.  The two should be completely separate.  Government should not support religious expression in any way.All reference to God in public and government spaces should be removed (eg., the Ten Commandments should not be displayed in Federal buildings).Religious expression has no place in government. The phrase “separation of church and state” is not in the Constitution.  The First Amendment to the Constitution states “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…”  This prevents the government from establishing a national church/denomination.  However, it does not prohibit God from being acknowledged in schools and government buildings.Symbols of Christian heritage should not be removed from public and government spaces (eg., the Ten Commandments should continue to be displayed in Federal buildings).Government should not interfere with religion and religious freedom.
Same-sex Marriage Marriage is the union of people who love each other.  It should be legal for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, to ensure equal rights for all.  Support same-sex marriage.Opposed to the creation of a constitutional amendment establishing marriage as the union of one man and one woman.  All individuals, regardless of their sexual orientation, have the right to marry.Prohibiting same-sex citizens from marrying denies them their civil rights.  [Opinions vary on whether this issue is equal to civil rights for African Americans.] Marriage is the union of one man and one woman.  Oppose same-sex marriage.
Support Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), passed in 1996, which affirms the right of states not to recognize same-sex marriages licensed in other states.
Requiring citizens to sanction same-sex relationships violates moral and religious beliefs of millions of Christians, Jews, Muslims and others, who believe marriage is the union of one man and one woman.
Social Security The Social Security system should be protected at all costs.  Reduction in future benefits is not a reasonable option.  [Opinions vary on the extent of the current system’s financial stability.]
Social Security provides a safety net for the nation’s poor and needy.  Changing the system would cause a reduction in benefits and many people would suffer as a result.
The Social Security system is in serious financial trouble.  Major changes to the current system are urgently needed.  In its current state, the Social Security system is not financially sustainable.  It will collapse if nothing is done to address the problems.  Many will suffer as a result. Social Security must be made more efficient through privitization and/or allowing individuals to manage their own savings.
Taxes Higher taxes (primarily for the wealthy) and a larger government are necessary to address inequity/injustice in society (government should help the poor and needy using tax dollars from the rich). Support a large government to provide for the needs of the people and create equality.  Taxes enable the government to create jobs and provide welfare programs for those in need. Government programs are a caring way to provide for the poor and needy in society. Lower taxes and a smaller government with limited power will improve the standard of living for all.
Support lower taxes and a smaller government.  Lower taxes create more incentive for people to work, save, invest, and engage in entrepreneurial endeavors.  Money is best spent by those who earn it, not the government. Government programs encourage people to become dependent and lazy, rather than encouraging work and independence.
United Nations (UN) The UN promotes peace and human rights.  The United States has a moral and a legal obligation to support the United Nations (UN).  The U.S. should not act as a sovereign nation, but as one member of a world community.  The U.S. should submit its national interests to the greater good of the global community (as defined by the UN).The U.S. should defer to the UN in military/peacekeeping matters.The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security.  U.S. troops should submit to UN command. The UN has repeatedly failed in its essential mission to promote world peace and human rights.  The wars, genocide and human rights abuses taking place in many Human Rights Council member states (and the UN’s failure to stop them) prove this point.History shows that the United States, not the UN, is the global force for spreading freedom, prosperity, tolerance and peace.  The U.S. should never subvert its national interests to those of the UN.The U.S. should never place troops under UN control.  U.S. military should always wear the U.S. military uniform, not that of UN peacekeepers.[Opinions vary on whether the U.S. should withdraw from the UN.]
War on Terror/Terrorism Global warming, not terrorism, poses the greatest threat to the U.S., according to Democrats in Congress.Terrorism is a result of arrogant U.S. foreign policy.Good diplomacy is the best way to deal with terrorism.  Relying on military force to defeat terrorism creates hatred that leads to more terrorism.Captured terrorists should be handled by law enforcement and tried in civilian courts. Terrorism poses one of the greatest threats to the U.S.The world toward which the militant Islamists strive cannot peacefully co-exist with the Western world.  In the last decade, militant Islamists have repeatedly attacked Americans and American interests here and abroad.  Terrorists must be stopped and destroyed.The use of intelligence-gathering and military force are the best ways to defeat terrorism around the world.Captured terrorists should be treated as enemy combatants and tried in military courts.
Welfare Support welfare, including long-term welfare.Welfare is a safety net which provides for the needs of the poor.  Welfare is necessary to bring fairness to American economic life.  It is a device for protecting the poor. Oppose long-term welfare.Opportunities should be provided to make it possible for those in need to become self-reliant.  It is far more compassionate and effective to encourage people to become self-reliant, rather than allowing them to remain dependent on the government for provisions.
Categories: News Article, Social Changes | Leave a comment

Women still do more housework — and it stresses them out

Adapted from: http://todayhealth.today.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/06/13/12208646-women-still-do-more-housework-and-it-stresses-them-out?lite

By Jennifer Welsh

LiveScience

While women are doing less housework than they used to, they still take on the brunt of the household cleaning chores. New research indicates that this extra work stresses them out, and that stress worsens when there is salary or gender inequality present in the relationship.

The findings match up well with previous studies regarding changes in the division of housework in the last decade. Though both men and women spend less time spent on domestic duties thanks to time-saving technologies, women still take on a large amount of the work, past studies show.

“In this study, women were in the majority (85 percent) in the combination of having more than half of the responsibility for domestic work and an equal socioeconomic position to the partner,” the researchers write in their research detailed today, June 13, in the journal PLoS ONE.

The researchers studied data from 371 women and 352 men from the Northern Swedish Cohort, collected in 1986 and 2007, when the participants were on average 21 and 42, respectively. At 42, all participants analyzed were living with children.

The participants answered questionnaires about their relationships, housework responsibilities, socioeconomic status of themselves and partners, and “psychological distress” level gauged by the number of times they’ve felt restless, unable to concentrate, or worried and nervous, in the last year.

“Domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility,” the researchers write. “Inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress.”

At 42, more women than men were psychologically distressed, the study found — at 21, distress levels were equal. They also found that women did more housework, and women were more likely to have jobs lower on the socioeconomic scale, and get paid less than men at the same job position: all signs of gender inequality.

For instance, more than 56 percent of women indicated they did more than half of the housework, compared with slightly less than 10 percent of men saying the sameFourteen percent and 9 percent of women and men, respectively, indicated they did all of the housework. 

The amount of extra housework women do, and the stress that comes from it, depends on multiple factors in the relationship. If inequalities permeate the relationship, the researchers found, they will trickle down into housework, too.

When partners were on equal footing job-wise, the partner doing more than half of the housework responsibilitiesindicated more stress than those not taking on the brunt of housework. Most of the participants in these lower-paying positions were women, which could be why they are more distressed than men, the researchers said.

Categories: Gender, News Article | Leave a comment

10 Cases of Natural Gender Inequality

Adapted from: http://listverse.com/2010/08/02/10-cases-of-natural-gender-inequality/

A gender gap is a difference between women and men, besides the obvious anatomy, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural or economic achievements or attitudes. However this list will focus on some of the biological aspects concerned with both sexes, such as the now well-known fact that men can hold their alcohol better than women, because women have a higher proportion of body fat and less stomach enzymes to metabolize the alcohol, causing 30% more of it to hit her bloodstream than a man who took the same drink.

Firstly, I apologize beforehand if any of my writing style comes off favoring either gender. I will also warn you to act as an adult concerning some of the entries on this list. Secondly, don’t let this list define you, some of these only concern either gender on average, not as an individual.

Navigation and Awareness

Man Looking At A Map While Stopped On A Country Road Uid 1

The way we get around is different to each gender, but it has been demonstrated that men are developmentally ahead in spatial awareness. Men are more abstract and Euclidian, using kilometers/miles and cardinal directions, while women often base their directions on landmarks and left-right directions. The lobule, which controls the perception of speed and the mental ability to rotate 3-D objects, is larger in men as well.

This all comes back to the hunter-gatherer days, when men led the hunt for meat and needed to have all of these perceptive tools handy for a successful hunt. On three-dimensional video tests, boys beat girls in spatial ability by a ratio of 4: 1, and the best girls were often outclassed by the lowest scoring boys.

Male brains are also programmed to concentrate efficiently on one thing at a time, while female brains are geared to be able to multitask. The reason behind this could be that neuron fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres are more plentiful in women. However some studies have shown the opposite to be true.

Intelligence

Screen Shot 2010-08-01 At 3.54.06 Pm

The male brain is larger than the female’s, having about 4% more cells and weighing 100 grams more than female brains. While this may be, each sex has equal brain weight to body weight ratio. The female brain is also more compact and more densely packed with neurons. In females, the region associated with language and social interaction is significantly larger than males, and located in both cerebral hemispheres, not just the left (as in males). While men exceed women at spatial navigation and geometry, women are exceeding at language even more. A study of 8th grade girls and boys (9th year for UK) showed the girls exceeding the boys 6: 1.

Because language centers are smaller, and only located in one hemisphere, this puts males more at risk for language disorders like dyslexia. Stuttering and speech defects appear almost exclusively in boys. But, even though they are more at risk, they average 3-4 IQ points more than women.

Interestingly enough, Dr. Louann Brizendine claims that every brain begins as a female brain, only becoming male 8 weeks after conception, when there is a surge in testosterone which reduces the language center and grows more cells in the aggression centers.

Health

Thermometer 15746 7

Women live longer than men in most countries. This could be due to safer life practices, or the fact that the jobs with the highest on-the-job death rate are all, predominantly, male. While both men and women are just as susceptible to mental illness, women are less vulnerable to developmental difficulties and chronic illnesses, with this possibly being due to having two X chromosomes, and therefore becoming a carrier of a disease before showing symptoms, and it could also be due to reduced exposure to testosterone. Remember, males will show symptoms of the disease if their only X chromosome is defective.

For this reason, some conditions are far more common in males than in females. Examples of X-linked recessive diseases are hemophilia and color blindness (see number 4). There is a possibility that Asperger’s Syndrome is a genetic disease as well, as it appears in 4 times as many males as females.

Aging

Screen Shot 2010-08-01 At 3.55.29 Pm

Women, unfortunately, do not age the same as men. Men, the same goes for you. Women have particularly denser neurons that deteriorate differently, which can lead to dementia quicker than a man’s brain would, simply because he has more of them. But women generally have faster blood flow to their brains, causing them to lose less brain tissue as they age.

Men’s skin also ages better, getting wrinkles later than women because the collagen levels don’t deteriorate as fast as they do in women. However, baldness is another X-linked recessive trait; you inherit it from your mother. This is because androgen receptors, a key hormone in the process of balding, are on the X chromosome. This means there is some truth that to see how your hair will go in the near future, look to your mother’s father, the person who gave her one of her X chromosomes. Chronic conditions are also showing a trend in being more prevalent in older women than men (conditions such as hypertension and arthritis).

Smell

Huge.51.255852

Women have a greater ability to detect smells than men, and this may be linked to estrogen hormones. The structure of the nose is the same in women as men, and they don’t have any more receptors in the nose, but studies have shown smells activate a greater region in the brain in women than men. In one study, they were able to do better than men in differentiating between odors and picking up faint and slight odors. The study was repeated with younger participants with similar results.

In another unrelated study, men were given clean cotton t-shirts to sleep in for two nights. The t-shirts were subsequently sealed in plastic bags and then sent to women to smell and rate how attractive they thought the t-shirt wearer was. The most striking find of the study was that the women often picked the men who had the strongest immune systems.

Pain Tolerance

Neck.153115603

Ever thought your girlfriend or wife was overreacting to a crushed finger or stubbed toe? Well, she might not have been overreacting at all, as women have more nerve receptors, which cause them to feel pain more intensely than men. Women average 34 nerve fibers per square centimeter of facial skin, while men only average 17 nerve fibers. You’re not being tougher than her by charismatically surviving a bee sting; you’re just not feeling it at her intensity.

This has far-reaching effects, as in the treatment of chronic pain sufferers may need higher dosages of painkillers. About 70% of chronic pain sufferers are women, as well. Their being sensitive and tolerant to pain is different though. Let me repeat: they are sensitive, yet tolerant to pain. They have more coping mechanisms than men do to deal with pain (i.e. more complex endorphin and oxytocin responses), and can therefore get through much more arduous parts of life, such as childbirth.

Sight

Madwoman2

When it comes to the sense of sight, there are some big differences between men and women. While men can read finer print and are better at night vision and discerning movement, women can sense colors better, have a wider periphery of vision and have more of a chance of being a tetrachromat.

A tetrachromat has another type of cone in between the red and green (somewhere in the orange range) and its 100 shades, theoretically, would allow a woman to see 100 million different colors. Only a woman can be a tetrachromat. This is because the genes for the pigments in green and red cones lie on the X chromosome, and only women have two X chromosomes, creating the opportunity for one type of red cone to be activated on one X chromosome and the other type of red cone on the other one. In a few cases, women may have two distinct green cones on either X chromosome.

Unfortunately, it doesn’t work the same for men, as most of the color deficient men inherit two red or two green cones along with the standard blue cone, making it impossible for them to distinguish between red and green. 8 percent of men in the world have a color deficiency as compared to 0.5% of women. 2-3% of women in the world may have a fourth cone and are a tetrachromat.

Communication

6A00D8341Ca59E53Ef01156F16E0C6970C-500Wi

Everybody knows that women and men communicate differently, and here are some observations from the scientific community that will enlighten you as to how and why.

Women are able to more adequately manipulate their facial expressions than men. However, the results are flipped when it comes to expressing and communicating anger. Women have a tendency to catch others emotions, also known as emotional contagion, although men can inhibit their expressions better than females, when cued to do so.

Women are more inclined to face each other and make eye contact when talking. Men are more likely to look away from each other. Women will tend to communicate more affection and prioritize communication more than the masculine side of the equation. When in a discussion, men are likely to debate and talk about a range of topics while the ladies may talk at length about one topic. There are a lot more tendencies each sex has when it comes to communicating, and it helps to understand this because some phrases mean something different to each gender, phrases such as “Talking about us.”

Friendships

Friendship

The way friendships are forged and maintained also differs between male and female. Men expect competition in companionship. They avoid communicating weakness and vulnerability as well as personal and emotional concerns. For women there is little to no problems with communicating weakness and vulnerability, even seeking out friendships during hardships. For this reason one could say that women are emotionally closer to their friends than men are.

Women tend to value and bond with their friends for listening and responding non-critically, showing support and offering comfort. On the other hand, men grow closer to each other by doing activities with each other, or doing each other favors. Young boys at school will play more vigorously, and occupy more space in their play area, than girls. Girls will opt for more sedentary games, and girls are more likely to accept a new classmate to their group, whereas a new boy will have to demonstrate his usefulness to the group.

Orgasm

Screen Shot 2010-08-01 At 3.58.19 Pm

During orgasm, both female and male genitals swell with blood, their pulse races and muscles contract involuntarily at intervals of 0.8 seconds (approximately). Some peoples mouths open. Others faces contort. The feet may arch and shake. A warm glow envelopes the body. It is during orgasm in both men and women that oxytocin floods through our bloodstream. Oxytocin, released by female orgasm, helps women lie still for a while afterwards. This further increases the likelihood of conception.

However, the difference here is the time to reach orgasm, and the functionality of each. According to sexologist Alfred Kinsley for 75% of all males, orgasm is possible to be attained within the first four minutes after initiation of sexual intercourse. For women the average time to reach orgasm is between 10 and 20 minutes. The swiftness of the male system virtually guarantees climactic orgasms for males, but is usually too quick for the female. Self stimulation is also quicker for both sexes, significantly for women.

It has also been proposed that due to the physiological similarity of men and womens genitals that the female orgasm is an “echo” of the male orgasm. As better stated by evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould: “The clitoris is the homologue of the penis – it is the same organ, endowed with the same anatomical organization and capacity of response.”

On the plus side though, both sexes may experience a burst of creative thought, since orgasm produces activity in the right, creative-thinking side of the brain.

Categories: Gender, News Article | Leave a comment

10 Extreme Examples of Gender Inequality

Adapted from: http://listverse.com/2008/11/20/10-extreme-examples-of-gender-inequality/

The human rights of women throughout the Middle East and North Africa are systematically denied by each of the countries in the region, despite the diversity of their political systems. Many governments routinely suppress civil society by restricting freedom of the press, expression, and assembly. These restrictions adversely affect both men and women; however, women are subject to a host of additional gender-specific human rights violations. For example, family, penal, and citizenship laws throughout the region relegate women to a subordinate status compared to their male counterparts. This legal discrimination undermines women’s full personhood and equal participation in society and puts women at an increased risk for violence.

Family matters in countries as diverse as Iran, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia are governed by religion-based personal status codes. Many of these laws treat women essentially as legal minors under the eternal guardianship of their male family members. Family decision-making is thought to be the exclusive domain of men, who enjoy by default the legal status of “head of household.” These notions are supported by family courts in the region that often reinforce the primacy of male decision-making power.

Here are ten of the most extreme examples of gender inequality you can find currently practiced, often state-sanctioned, in the world today.

Forbidden from driving

Driving600

In Saudi Arabia, women aren’t allowed to drive, or even ride bikes, and men aren’t allowed to drive women they’re not closely related to. The kingdom is currently dealing with the dilemma of how to get 367,000 girls to school on buses that can only be driven by men. The logical question at this point is this: If no men are allowed to come in contact with schoolgirls, and women aren’t allowed to drive, who will be driving the school buses? The Ministry of Education is currently recruiting “Al-Ameen” or trustworthy men for this initiative. It may be hard for some to take this term seriously considering the way Saudi Arabia’s religious police infamously broke the trust of 15 girls’ parents in 2002 when a girls’ school was on fire. The police forbade them from leaving the building, and in some cases beat them to keep them from leaving, because the girls’ heads weren’t properly veiled. The girls all died in the fire. One has to wonder how the Ministry of Education plans to handle school-bus breakdowns near similarly inclined men.

Clothing requirements

Img 0056-705316

In 2001 a militant group called Lashkar-e-Jabar demanded that Muslim women in Kashmir wear burqas, head to toe garments that cover their clothes, or risk being attacked. Men threw acid in the faces of two women for not covering up in public. The group also demanded that Hindu and Sikh women dress so as to identify themselves: they said that Hindu women should wear a bindi (the traditional colored dot) on their foreheads, and Sikh women should cover their heads with saffron-colored cloth.

Right to divorce

Gavel

In many countries, while husbands can divorce their spouses easily (often instantaneously through oral repudiation), wives’ access to divorce is often extremely limited, and they frequently confront near insurmountable legal and financial obstacles. In Lebanon, battered women cannot file for divorce on the basis of abuse without the testimony of an eyewitness. A medical certificate from a doctor documenting physical abuse is simply not good enough. Although women in Egypt can now legally initiate a divorce without cause, they must agree not only to renounce all rights to the couple’s finances, but must also repay their dowries. Essentially, they have to buy their freedom. In Israel, a man must grant his wife a get, a Jewish divorce writ that can only be given by a man to his wife – never the other way around.

Access to education

Fe Da 080324Qa 11209

In many areas of Afghanistan, girls are often taken out of school when they hit puberty. Cultural factors related to the ‘correctness’ of sending girls to school, reluctance to send girls and boys to the same school after third grade, as well as the perceived and real security threats related to girls walking to school and attending classes all contribute to slowing down the enrollment of girls in schools. Likewise, the enormous lack of female teachers, who are fundamental in a country where girls cannot be taught by a man after a certain age, is having a negative impact on girls’ education. While progress has been made since the fall of the Taliban, women are still struggling to see their rights fulfilled. Literacy rates among young Afghan women are disturbingly low: only 18 per cent of women between 15 and 24 can read. While the total number of children enrolled in primary schools is increasing tremendously, the percentage of female students is not.

Right to travel

Picture 3-16

Husbands in Egypt and Bahrain can file an official complaint at the airport to forbid their wives from leaving the country for any reason. In Syria, a husband can prevent his wife from leaving the country. In Iraq, Libya, Jordan, Morocco, Oman and Yemen, married women must have their husband’s written permission to travel abroad, and they may be prevented from doing so for any reason. In Saudi Arabia, women must obtain written permission from their closest male relative to leave the country or travel on public transportation between different parts of the kingdom.

Victims of violence

R41Qwi59

Women’s unequal legal rights increase their vulnerability to violence. In many countries in the region, no specific laws or provisions exist to penalize domestic violence, even though domestic violence is a widespread problem. Domestic violence is generally considered to be a private matter outside the state’s jurisdiction. Battered women are told to go home if they attempt to file a complaint with the police. Few shelters exist to protect women who fear for their lives. Spousal rape has not been criminalized; husbands have an absolute right to their wives’ bodies at all times. Penal codes in several countries in the region also contain provisions that authorize the police and judges to drop charges against a rapist if he agrees to marry his victim.

Custody rights

Picture 2-41

In Bahrain, where family law is not codified, judges have complete power to deny women custody of their children for the most arbitrary reasons. Bahraini women who have been courageous enough to expose and challenge these violations in 2003 were sued for slander by eleven family court judges.

Citizenship

1881446-Kabul Airport-Afghanistan

Most countries in the region-with the exception of Iran, Tunisia, Israel, and to a limited extent Egypt-have permitted only fathers to pass citizenship on to their children. Women married to non-nationals are denied this fundamental right.

Sexual subjugation

Ap Muslim Sex 070712 Mn

Many countries criminalize adult, consensual sex outside of marriage. In Morocco, women are much more likely to be charged with having violated penal code prohibitions on sexual relations outside of marriage than men. Unmarried pregnant women are particularly at risk of prosecution. The Moroccan penal code also considers the rape of a virgin as an aggravating circumstance of assault. The message is clear: the degree of punishment of the perpetrator is determined by the sexual experience of the victim.

Female infanticide

India (300 X 416)

China’s one child policy has heightened the disdain for female infants; abortion, neglect, abandonment, and infanticide have been known to occur to female infants. The result of such family planning has been the disparate ratio of 114 males for every 100 females among babies from birth through children four years of age. Normally, 105 males are naturally born for every 100 females.

Similarly, the number of girls born and surviving in India is significantly less compared with the number of boys, due to the disproportionate numbers of female fetuses being aborted and baby girls deliberately neglected and left to die. The normal ratio of births should be 950 girls for every 1000 boys, however in some regions the number is as low as 300.

Categories: Gender | Leave a comment

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.